Samantha Summers, University of Toronto
Popular depictions of the Crusades lead us to assume that to be powerful during the Crusades was to wield a sword. However, power in the Kingdom of Jerusalem was much more nuanced. This diverse kingdom was home to five queens who inherited their thrones and expressed their power in ways that did not always reflect rulership a we might expect it to exist in the Levant during the 12th and 13th centuries. This talk will explore the varies and sometimes surprising ways in which these five queens ruled their kingdom and exprssed thier power: through war, negotiation, and wits.